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自考《英语(二)》章节习题

2019-11-13 11:01:19 管理员

自考《英语(二)》章节习题

Unit 1

一、阅读选择  

The easy way out isn’t always easiest. I learned that lesson when I decided to treat Doug, my husband of one month, to a special meal. I glanced through my cook book and chose a menu which included homemade bread. Knowing the bread would take time. I started on it as soon as Doug left for work. As I was not experienced in cooking, I thought if a dozen was good, two dozen would be better, so I doubled everything. As Doug loved oranges, I also opened a can of orange and poured it all into the bowl. Soon there was a sticky dough covered with ugly yellowish marks. Realizing I had been defeated, I put the dough in the rubbish bin outside so I wouldn’t have to face Doug laughing at my work. I went on preparing the rest of the meal, and, when Doug got home, we sat down to Cornish chicken with rice. He tried to enjoy the meal but seemed disturbed. Twice he got up and went outside, saying he thought he heard a noise. The third time he left, I went to the windows to see what he was doing. Looking out, I saw Doug standing about three feet from the rubbish bin, holding the lid up with a stick and looking into the container. When I came out of the house, he dropped the stick and explained that there was something alive in out rubbish bin. Picking up the stick again, he held the lid up enough for me to see. I felt cold. But I stepped closer and looked harder. Without doubt it was my work. The hot sun had caused the dough to double in size and the fermenting yeast made the surface shake and sigh as though it were breathing. I had to admit what the living thing was and why it was there. I don't know who was more embarrassed by the whole thing—Doug or me.

1) The writer’s purpose in writing this story is ________.

A. to tell an interesting experience

B. to show the easiest way out of a difficulty

C. to describe the trouble facing a newly married woman

D. to explain the difficulty of learning to cook from books

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 通读文章后,可知这是一篇关于一位新婚的家庭主妇,为了给丈夫做面包而引发的有趣故事。作者写这篇文章的目的,是想让人知道她这段有趣的经历,故应选A。

 

2) Why did the woman’s attempt at making the bread turn out to be unsuccessful?

A. The canned orange had gone bad.

B. She didn’t use the right kind of flour.

C. The cookbook was hard to understand.

D. She did not follow the directions closely.

【正确答案】 D

【答案解析】 文中提及“As I was not experienced in cooking I thought if a dozen was good, two dozen would be better” 和“As Doug loved orange, I also opened a can of orange and poured it all into the bowl”,可知这位家庭主妇(即作者)并未按烹调指南行事,故应选D。

 

3) Why did the woman put the dough in the rubbish bin?

A. She didn’t see the use of keeping it.

B. She meant to joke with her husband.

C. She didn’t want her husband to see it.

D. She hoped it would soon dry in the sun.

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 根据原文,作者在意识到自己制做面包失败时,“put the dough in the rubbish bin outside so I wouldn’t have to face Doug laughing at my work”,故应选C。

 

4) What made the dough in the bin looks frighting?

A. The rising and falling movement.

B. The strange-looking marks.

C. Its shape.

D. Its size.

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 这是对句意和细节理解的题目。文中提及“The hot sun had caused the dough to double in size and the fermenting yeast made the surface shake and sigh as though it were breathing”,故应选A。

 

5) When Doug went out the third time, the woman looked out of the window because she was ________.

A. surprised at his being interested in the bin

B. afraid that he would discover her secret

C. unhappy that he didn’t enjoy the meal

D. curious to know what disturbed him

【正确答案】 D

【答案解析】 文中提及“... the third time he left, I went to the windows to see what he was doing.”可知作者在吃饭时就看出丈夫心烦意乱,频繁出去。当丈夫第三次出去时,作者不知道丈夫出去干什么,出于好奇,就到窗边去看。答案选D。

 

 

二、填词补文  

As Christmas is coming, there are presents to be bought, cards to be sent, and rooms to be cleaned. Parents are ___1___ with difficult jobs of hiding presents from curious young children. If the gifts are large, this is sometimes a real ___2___. On Christmas Eve, young children find the excitement almost unbearable. They are torn between the wish to go to bed early so that Father Christmas will bring their presents quickly and the wish to stay up late so that they will not miss the fun. The wish for gifts usually proves stronger. But though children go to bed early, they often lie awake for a long time, hoping to get a short ___3___ at Father Christmas.
Last Christmas, my wife and I successfully hid a few large presents in the storeroom. I ___4___ the moment when my son, Jimmy, would ask me where that new bike had come from, but ___5___ he did not see it.
On Christmas Eve, it took the children hours to go to sleep. It must have been nearly ___6___ when my wife and I went quietly into their room and began filling stockings. Then I pushed in the ___7___ I bought for Jimmy and left it beside the Christmas tree. We knew we would not get much sleep that night, for the children were ___8___ to get up early. At about five o’clock the next morning, we were woken by loud sounds coming from the children’s room — they were shouting excitedly! Before I had time to get out of bed, young Jimmy came riding into the room on his new bike, and his sister, Mary, followed close behind pushing her new baby carriage. Even the baby arrived. He moved ___9___ the hands and knees into the room dragging a large balloon behind him. Suddenly it burst. That woke us up ___10___. The day had really begun with a band!
A. bike   B. midnight  C. fortunately   D. look
E. problem   F. faced  G. sure   H. on
I. feared   J. tiny  K. completely   L. lick

1) 1. ______

【正确答案】 F

【答案解析】 从空格后difficult jobs of… 推测意思为“be faced with面临”, 此处搭配应用被动语态。

 

2) 2. ______

【正确答案】 E

【答案解析】 想把大型的礼物藏起来不是一件容易的事情。question=疑问,matter=麻烦或毛病,business =商业或买卖,均不符句意。

 

3) 3. ______

【正确答案】 D

【答案解析】 stare at=瞪着眼睛看,glare at=怒目而视,watch是及物动词,后面不能接at。

 

4) 4.______

【正确答案】 I

【答案解析】 上文已说大的礼物难藏,作者在把自行车放在储藏室,最担心的是被孩子们发现,而不是喜欢。C、D不符句意。

 

5) 5.______

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 从空格后he didn’t see it 及这次给孩子的惊喜可推知答案。

 

6) 6. ______

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 首先排除不符句意的A、D,再从we knew we wouldn’t get much sleep…,及 at about five o’clock the next morning ,we were… 提示。

 

7) 7.______

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 从下文Jimmy came riding into the room on his new bike可知,推进来的是为Jimmy买的自行车。

 

8) 8.______

【正确答案】 G

【答案解析】 根据父母的了解,孩子盼望礼物心切, 肯定会起得很早,其他三个选项不够准确。

 

9) 9. ______

【正确答案】 H

【答案解析】 on the hands and knees 意为“用手和膝盖爬行”,其中on表示方式。

 

10) 10. ______

【正确答案】 K

【答案解析】 作者和妻子刚睡不久就被孩子吵醒,这时气球被玩爆了,一声巨响让他们彻底醒来,这爆炸声也预示喜庆的一天开始了。

 

 

三、短文写作  
健康一直是人们关注的问题,请根据下面结构,以健康为题,谈谈你的看法:
保持健康的重要性:(你的看法)
保持健康的方法:
1. 多吃水果蔬菜,保持饮食平衡,避免含糖高、脂肪高的食物;
2. 多锻炼,健身强体;
3. 摈弃不良习惯。
保持健康的结论:(你的看法)
要求:1. 可适当增加所给内容,不可逐条翻译;2. 词数:150左右。

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

【正确答案】 Nothing is more important than health. If you are in poor health, you cannot study and work well, you cannot enjoy your life as others do. Since health is so important, how to keep good health?
First, eat all kinds of fruits and vegetables to keep a balanced diet, and avoid eating the food with too much sugar and fat. Second, do more exercise such as running, swimming, playing basketball and so on to make your body stronger. Third, to get rid of bad habits such as sleeping late, eating the food with lots of sugar and fat, sitting in front of your desk without having a rest for a long time.
In short, as long as you can stick to the advice given above and keep a good mood every day, I’m sure you can keep in good health.

 

Unit 2

一、阅读选择  

Good Communication for Making Friends

As a communication skills trainer, I've met a wide range of people. Some people have trouble associating with others and have difficulty making friends. So I would like to discuss two key points to making good friends. The first is to show respect and love for your friends through your words. Try to say things to others that would feel good to you if you heard them. For example, say things like, "Thanks for the great time" and "It was really nice to get to know you."If you are not good at speaking, then smiling and using body language to express your sincerity is also an effective way to communicate. Additionally, I recommend that when you meet someone new send them an e-mail or letter before the day is over to express how nice it was to meet them.

The goal of good communication is to reach another person's heart and form a comfortable relationship. It is, therefore, based the premise that you get rid of your worries and become a bright and positive person. When there is static noise over the phone line, you can't hear the other person clearly, right? In the same way, when your mind is full of worries and you try to communicate with another person, you cannot give or receive messages accurately. For example, let's say you are still tied to a past wound of being betrayed by a friend and feeling hurts .Even if you meet someone new and he or she tells you, "Let's be good friends," you may not be able to accept it because you will hear a negative inner voice saying something like "I

might be betrayed again" or "the person might have a hidden agenda."With this worry in your mind, you will not be able to make friends.

If you can be refreshed and get rid of your worries, you should be able to sense others' thoughts and feelings without prejudice and build a relationship of trust. If you really can't let go of your painful past experience, then try to change your perspective on the experience.

For example, try to think that it was a necessary lesson for you to understand others' pain. If you can think of the positive intention behind the event, then you will be able to view the experience favourably and feel better.

1) The main topic of the passage is________. ( )

A. how to communicate with others

B. how to refresh yourself

C. how to forget the past unhappiness

D. how to show respect and love for your friends

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 本文作者主要谈论了怎样通过交流来结交朋友。因此选项A符合题意。其他三个选项是作者在文中提到的,我们进行交流时应该注意的几个具体方法。答案为A。

 

2) The effective way to communicate includes________.( )

A. showing respect and love for friends with words

B. smiling and using body language

C. sending an e-mail or letter

D. All of the above

【正确答案】 D

【答案解析】 作者在第一段中提到了三点有效沟通的方式,其中前两点最为重要,即选项A和B的内容,另外还提到了一个建议即选项C的内容。因此三个选项的内容都包括了。答案为D。

 

3) The effective way to communicate includes________.( )

A. showing respect and love for friends with words

B. smiling and using body language

C. sending an e-mail or letter

D. All of the above

【正确答案】 D

【答案解析】 作者在第一段中提到了三点有效沟通的方式,其中前两点最为重要,即选项A和B的内容,另外还提到了一个建议即选项C的内容。因此三个选项的内容都包括了。答案为D。

 

4) Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the passage? ()

A. Body language is as effective as saying things that will make friends feel better.

B. If you distrust others, then it's difficult for you to make new friends.

C. The writer conducted a research on how people communicate with their friends.

D. Minds full of worries will do great harm to interpersonal relationship

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 本题可采用排除法。第一段中,作者谈到了有关肢体语言能帮助我们有效交流的内容,因此选项A正确。第二段后半部分,作者举例讲了交友中如果不信任对方会出现什么情况,因此选项B正确。第二、三段作者重点讲了交友中焦虑带来的负面影响,并给出了克服它的方法;因此选项D也正确。答案为C。

 

5) The example in paragraph 2 is intended to show that________. ( )

A. the goal of good communication is to reach another person's heart

B. the goal of good communication is to form a comfortable relationship

C. good communication is based on the premise that you get rid of your worries and become a bright and positive person

D. it does take time for someone to forget all about the painful past

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 作者所举例子是消极、焦虑的情绪在交友中无法获取正确的信息。用这个反面的例子是为了说明,我们应该克服焦虑情绪,变得快乐、积极。选项C符合上述内容。答案为C。

 

6) In the sentence "the person might have a hidden agenda" (para.2) ,the word "agenda" means________. ( )

A. relationship

B. plan

C. worry

D. past

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 这句话出现在作者所举的反面例子中。人们头脑中出现的焦虑情绪会怀疑对方有潜藏计划或某种秘密企图。agenda 可理解为某种计划、企图。答案为B。

 

二、概况段落大意和补全句子  

Overcoming Difficulties

① Life is full of difficulties and obstacles, from birth to death. At times, Life seems like a hurdle race. We are sure of encountering hurdles, but almost always we are taken by surprise. It is necessary to accept that life in general is full of difficulties and adversities. This recognition is the first step. When faced with problems, we often feel, "I am the only one having such problems" Or, we tend to exaggerate our problems and regard them as most complex, most painful,and as an extreme case. But if we look around us, we find people in much worse conditions. As St. Augustine said, "I cried for boots, till I saw a man who had no legs."

② When faced with difficulties, we either complain or seek to dodge them. We behave like as ostrich in the desert. It is said that when there is a storm in the desert, the ostrich buries his head in the sand-hoping that the storm will go away if he ignores it-and finally gets buried under a heap of sand and dies. Some of us choose to pretend that the problems do not exist. We fail to realize that confronting and solving the problem-no painful the process-makes us grow.

③ Accept the woes of birth. It has many implied meanings. First, it means "accepting," i.e., being able to say that it is "my" problem and it is up to me to solve it. Many times we find ourselves putting the blame on others-parents, society or the circumstances of life. Nothing happens by chance, but all is the result of our past actions. There are times when what is needed is patience. We seek to come out of an unpleasant situation quickly. We must understand that if the cause had been operating for a long time, the effect also would last long-as even when the gas has been turned off, the burner remains hot for a long time. Similarly, we expect quick results; having put in the effort, we must be willing to wait. Patient acceptance of what is due to us makes us makes us take a step further in our development.

④ Once we have learnt to deal with a difficulty, the next time we encounter it, it ceases to be a difficulty. But, more often than not the cause of the problem is internal, i.e., within us, and often, it calls for a change. Often the difficulty is solved when we are willing to change—our way of thinking, our feelings, our likes and dislikes—and ready to adapt or adjust ourselves to a problematic situation or a person in life. We must realize that realize that change is inevitable, and always be mentally prepared for it.

⑤ Not all life's problems are such that they need to be dealt with all at once. Sometimes it is possible to take a step and wait for a long time. For instance, if the tap is leaking then we need to call a plumber as soon as we can. But having called him and having found that he can come only the following morning, we should wait patiently for the next 24 hours. In this period, people can get very anxious and go on talking about it to others. There are many such problems in life.

1. Paragraph①___________

2. Paragraph②___________

3. Paragraph③___________

4. Paragraph④___________

5. Paragraph⑤___________

A. There are implied meanings about the accepting the woes of birth.

B. Diligence is also very important in solving problems.

C. The first step of overcoming obstacles is to accept that life is full of difficulties.

D. Some problems can’t be solved all at once.

E. We must realize that change is inevitable.

F. Confronting and solving the problem makes us grow.

6. It's of great necessity to accept that life in general is full of__________.

7. Faced with difficulties, people either complain or___________.

8. We often put our problems____________.

9. Sometimes problems do need taking a step and __________.

10. While waiting for a long time,people tend to become______.

A. seek to dodge them

B. immediate reaction

C. waiting for a long time

D. difficulties and adversities

E. very anxious

F. on others

1) ______

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 选项C概括了原文第一段的主要内容,即承认生命中充满了困难是我们克服困难的第一步。答案为C。

 

2)______

【正确答案】 F

【答案解析】 本段作者讲了我们在面对困难时的做法,逃避或者面对。关键句是段首和段尾句。只有选项F符合上述内容。答案为F。

 

3) ______

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 本段中心句为第一、二句,即Accept the woes (麻烦) of birth和It has many implied meanings ,选项A符合此意。答案为A。

 

4) ______

【正确答案】 E

【答案解析】 本段多次提到了关键词“change”,中心句为最后一句,即我们必须意识到改变不可避免,而且要从思想上做好准备。答案为E。

 

5) ______

【正确答案】 D

【答案解析】 本段作者讲了许多问题不可能一下子得到解决,有的需要采取不同步骤来解决,有的甚至需要花费很长的时间。选项D符合此意。答案为D。

 

6) ______

【正确答案】 D

【答案解析】 本题根据原文第一段第四句It is necessary to accept that life in general is full of difficulties and adversities 可得出答案。答案为D。

 

7) ______

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 本题根据原文第二段段首句When faced with difficulties,we either complain or seek to dodge them 可得出答案。答案为A。

 

8) ______

【正确答案】 F

【答案解析】 本题根据原文第三段第四句Many times we find… of life可得出答案。答案为F。

 

9) ______

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 本题根据原文第五段第二句Sometimes it is possible to take a step and wait for a long time 可得出答案。答案为C。

 

10)______

【正确答案】 E

【答案解析】 本题根据原文第五段倒数第二句In this period,people can get very anxious and go on talking about it to other可得出答案。答案为E。

三、填句补文  

300 Hurdles

Now comes the first hurdle. __1__ We all make it over this hurdle with ease. This symbolizes

Those obstacles in life that we struggle to get over, but we always manage to do so. You can look at that hurdle in two ways: "I can’t make it over, I’m too tired" or "I am one more hurdle closer to finishing this race". This is an example of taking a negative situation and seeing something positive in it.

The next part of the race is every hurdle between the first and last one. __2__ This happens a lot in life too. There may be a situation that arises where you feel as though you can’t make it and all you can think about is giving up. You may fall over that "hurdle" or struggle getting over it, but somehow you find it in yourself to jump over it and move on with the race.

Next is that last 100m of the race. You feel as though you just want to say, "No I can't do this." __3__

Now lastly is the last hurdle. This hurdle is the toughest out of all of them. In life we find ourselves falling and falling, and maybe getting too lost in our problems that we fell like have been though enough and there’s no hope. __4__ It's one step close to the end of the race.

Once you finish, you look back on it and you realize that you made it not by leaping, but step by step. "Yard by yard, life is very hard. But inch by inch, life can be a cinch."___5___

A. This hurdle the easiest to get over because you are not worn out from running.

B. Again, you must find it in yourself that you can do it, and you must finish the race stronger than when you had started it.

C. All it takes is one step at a time, one hurdle at a time.

D. That last hurdle symbolizes these situations.

E. These hurdles get tougher and tougher and you may feel as though you can’t go on

F. Next is the lining up in our own individual lanes.

1) ______

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 填空处上一句引出了第一个栏,可以推断出作者将对这第一个栏进行描写。选项A符合上述内容,同时“this” 是对上一句“the first hurdle”的指代。答案为A。

 

2) ______

【正确答案】 E

【答案解析】 根据上一题的解题思路可知,作者在此引出了中间部分的跨栏,因此填空处应填入对这部分跨栏的描写。选项E符合此内容,同时“these”是对上句中“every hurdle between the first and last one”的指代。答案为E。

 

3) ______

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 上文提到当我们来到最后100米跨栏时,我们想说“不,我做不到。”与上段一样,作者先提出困难然后指出应该克服困难。因此应填入表示克服困难的句子。选项B中的you can do it... you must finish the race…符合此意,并与上句的“I can't do this”相对应。答案为B。

 

4) ______

【正确答案】 D

【答案解析】 本段作者介绍了比赛中的最后一个栏,它象征着我们生命中最棘手的境遇。因此填空处应填入表示“最后一个栏”、“最艰难环境”等内容。选项D符合此意。答案为D。

 

5) ______

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 文章最后应选择一句有概括意义的句子。答案为C。

 

Unit 3

一、填词补文  

Hardest Things

Growing up I always heard the expression, “You don't know ___1___ you've got till it's gone.” These words have never really had much meaning to me until just ___2___. This happens to everyone at least once, not ___3___ the things we have. How would we know how ___4___ things are if we never get anything ___5___ away from us? Every day I have been taking ___6___ of things that could easily be taken away, like my job, friends, and pets.

In this __7__, losing my job was one of the hardest things I've had to deal with about a year and a half ago I used to work for a retail store called Gottschalks. I worked for them for about two years. I worked in customer service and counted the vault for the store, which was balancing out the amount the store had made the day before. When I worked for the company I made pretty good money and got pretty good hours, but I would always find things to ___8___ about. I complained about things that did not really ___9___ when I should have been more thankful that I still had a job. This was around the time ___10___ the country began feeling the effects of the recession and businesses starting closing all over. That's when the rumors started going around that Gottschalks might be heading into bankruptcy, but still I felt I had no reason to worry.

A. important D. advantage G. taken J. what

B. complain E. appreciating H. when K. matter

C. recently F. surprised I. case L. purchase

1) ______

【正确答案】 J

【答案解析】 本句是宾语从句,从句中缺少主语,因此应用what 引导。句意:直到失去你才会懂得珍惜(你所拥有的)。答案为J。

 

2) ______

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 句意:直到最近我才明白这句话的意义。根据句意可知,此处应填入一个表示时间的副词。答案为C。

 

3) ______

【正确答案】 E

【答案解析】 句意:我们每个人都会发生至少一次这样的事,不珍惜我们所拥有的东西。本句已经有谓语happens to ,因此应填入动词的现在分词形式作伴随状语。答案为E。

 

4) ______

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 本空位于how引导的宾语从句中,how后面接形容词修饰things。important 意为重要的,符合句意。句意:怎样做我们才会知道这些事情有多么重要呢。答案为A。

 

5) ______

【正确答案】 G

【答案解析】 这里出现了两个固定搭配。get something/anything done,指使某事完成,有被动意味;take away,指剥夺、拿开。因此应填入动词的过去分词形式。句意:如果我们(拥有的)从来没有被剥夺。答案为G。

 

6) ______

【正确答案】 D

【答案解析】 take advantage of固定搭配,利用、用……优势。句意:每天,我拥有的优势很可能轻易就会失去,比如我的工作、朋友和宠物。答案为D。

 

7) ______

【正确答案】 I

【答案解析】 指示代词this 后应填入名词。in this case固定搭配,指在这种情况下。答案为I。

 

8) ______

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 本题下一句是对填空处的具休说明,其中的complain about提示出答案。complain 作抱怨、发牢骚讲时,是不及物动词,因此与about连用。答案为B。

 

9) ______

【正确答案】 K

【答案解析】 句意:当我本应该感谢我还拥有一份工作时,我却在抱怨琐事。本空是that 引导的定语从句,其中谓语部分缺少实意动词。matter可作动词,指有重大影响、重要性。答案为K。

 

10)______

【正确答案】 H

【答案解析】 本句是定语从句,从句中缺少时间状语,因此应该用when引导。句意:正是在整个国家开始受到经济衰退的影响,许多公司纷纷倒闭的时候。答案为H。

 

 

二、完形补文  

Language Learning

This section offers ideas for language learning activities. Try out these activities and if you find them effective, build them into your individual study programme.

The activities are ___1___ (organize) under the main skill(s) they relate to. Language learning is often seen in terms of four basic language skills-listening, speaking, reading and ___2___ (write). There can, of course, be an overlap between skill areas—grammar and vocabulary are two extra areas which are frequently added to the four skills.

Another ___3___ (use) way of looking at language is in terms of function. This involves ___4___( identify) the different purposes for which language__5__ (be) used. For example, language items that, reflect different functions areas such as apologizing. ___6___ (introduce) and greeting, or requesting can be usefully grouped together.

Finally, register can serve as a helpful way of looking at language. Register __7___(relate) to the style of language found in a particular context. In many languages, this can vary according to situation (how formal/informal it is) and the relationship between __8__ (use).It is also important to ask yourself what you can learn about the society and culture of the country where the language is __9__(speak).With regard to the particular text or language activity you are __10__(engage) with , you might ask yourself.

 

1) ______

【正确答案】 organized

【答案解析】 句意:这些活动根据与其相关的技能被组织在一起。本空考查被动语态,应填入动词的过去分词形式。答案为organized。

 

2) ______

【正确答案】 writing

【答案解析】 本空应与前边提到的三项基本功的表达方式保持一致,即用动名词形式。答案为writing。

 

3) ______

【正确答案】 useful

【答案解析】 代词another后,名词way前缺少修饰成分,应填入一个形容词。another useful way指另一个有用的方法。答案为useful。

 

4)______

【正确答案】 identifying

【答案解析】 句意:这涉及到(需要)明确正在使用过程中语言的不同作用。Involve是及物动词,后面接名词。因此本空应填入identify 的动名词形式。答案为identifying。

 

5) ______

【正确答案】 is being

【答案解析】 本题是被动语态,另外根据文意,这里除了被动含义还有正在进行的意味,因此应填入被动语态的进行时。答案为is being。

 

6) ______

【正确答案】 introducing

【答案解析】 本句作者介绍了语言的不同功用,有表示抱歉的、表引入的、表问候或疑问的。作者在说明这些功用时用了动名词,因此本空应填入动名词。答案为introducing。

 

7) ______

【正确答案】 relates

【答案解析】 句意:语域与特殊语境中的语言风格有关。relate to固定搭配,指“与……有关”。本空缺少谓语动词,时态与原文保持一致,即一般现在时;又因为主语register(指语域、语体风格)是单数,因此应填入动词的第三人称单数形式。答案为relates。

 

8) ______

【正确答案】 users

【答案解析】 句意:在许多语言中,根据场合(正式或非正式)及使用者之间的关系的不同,这(语言风格)会有很大不同。根据句意,应填入表示“……的人”意思的词。答案为users。

 

9) ______

【正确答案】 spoken

【答案解析】 句意:问问自己,在国家的社会和文化中所使用的语言里学到了什么,这一点很重要。本空考查被动语态,应填入动词的过去分词形式。答案为spoken。

 

10) ______

【正确答案】 engaged

【答案解析】 句意:关于特定的语言或是你正从事的语言活动,你可以问问自己。be engaged with固定搭配,从事,正忙于……。答案为engaged。

 

 

三、短文写作  

请根据下列材料写一篇150词左右的英语短文。

Over the past couple of years, several cases of the food scandal have been disclosed on various media. The problem of food security has become a hot button across society. What is your opinion about this phenomenon?

【正确答案】 略

【答案解析】 近年来我国食品安全问题频频曝光,使得人们对于食品的食用更加小心谨慎。本题要求对“食品安全问题”发表自己的看法。
1.提出社会问题―食品安全(food security)。
2.重点阐述自己对此问题的看法。
(1)大量不法商贩制造劣质商品(illegal traders make some low-quality products)。
(2)政府在相关的制度方面不健全,无法监控到位(the legislation isn't ideal…)。
(3)人们应该提高识别“假货”的意识和能力,减少食品安全问题(...develop the ability of recognizing the “fakes”…)。
3.总结全文:安全问题是一个社会问题,希望政府、商家和公民联合起来共同应对这一尖锐问题。

 

Unit 4

一、阅读判断  

Personal Finance

When it comes to our finances, each of us has our own individual approach. Some of us are savers, some are spenders, and others are some-where in between. This continuum is a paradigm that our popular culture uses to frame differences in the way people approach money.

I believe that the way we approach our finances goes beyond that particular behavioral characteristic. In reality, I think our approach to finances can be viewed in more of a multi-dimensional setting, where money has a different role in our lives. For some, money means survival, plain and simple. For others, money is something that is a part of their lives but rarely on their mind, regardless of the role it actually plays. For yet others, money is an obsession, as accumulation indicates achievement. Some people view money as a defensive resource to protect against future setbacks. Some people want money to provide a good home, to contribute to the ability to have certain hobbies, or to provide something to future generations and so on. Sometimes the same person may view money differently in different situations. The bottom line is that we each have our own relationship with money, and our own conscious and subconscious needs for money, rooted in our value systems.

This is an area of personal finance that has interested me for a while. Why do people behave the way they do with respect to their money? What's driving this behavior? Of course, a starting point for anybody is to consider how you personally view things. Taking an introspective approach,I have spent time figuring out my own take on money,and the role it plays in my life. What I have determined is that for me,it fits into a framework that includes the following elements:health, wealth, and relationships. These are linked together as a part of a system. They're all connected, and to the extent one is strengthened, the others will be strengthened as well. If one is weakened, the others will be weakened as well. So to me, money is a part of the wealth aspect of HWR. Beyond basic survival, money gives you the opportunity to live a healthier life, with the time and means to have more positive relationships. One thing I want to make clear is that I am not saying that money buys friends. Well, it could, but those aren't true friends. What I am saying is that the more money you have ,on balance, the less stressed you are about it, and the more time you have to do other things, such as cultivate true, genuine relationships that aren’t based on money. Money is but a component in the system.

1) The approaches to finances vary from person to person. ( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 题干句意:人与人的理财方法大相径庭。根据第一段前两句可知,我们每个人都有自己的理财方法。一些人善于储蓄,一些人喜欢消费,还有些人介于二者之间。由此可知题干说法正确。答案为A。

 

2) Money plays the same role in our lives.( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 题干句意:金钱在我们的生活中扮演同一个角色。根据第二段第二句可知,作者认为我们的理财方法可以被看作是一个多维的设置,在这个设置里金钱在我们生活里扮演不同的角色。由此可知题干说法不正确。答案为B。

 

3) Some people think of money as a means of donation.( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 题干句意:有些人把金钱看作是捐助的一种方式。第二段从第三句到第七句,作者介绍了许多人对金钱持有的不同看法,但没有涉及到题干的说法。答案为C。

 

4) Although money is part of their life, some people don’t attach more importance to it.( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 题干句意:尽管金钱是他们生活的一部分,一些人并不认为它有多重要。第二段第四句作者说,对有些人来说,尽管金钱是他们生活的一部分,但无论金钱发挥怎样的作用,他们都很少考虑这些。因此题干说法正确。答案为A。

 

5) Some people use money to cultivate their hobbies.( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 题干句意:有些人用金钱来培养自己的兴趣爱好。第二段第七句Some people want money to…to contribute to the ability to have certain hobbies…其中包括了题干内容,答案为A。

 

6) People’s attitudes towards money may change in different situations.( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 题干句意:不同情况下,人们对待金钱的态度也有所不同。第二段第八句, Sometimes the same person may view money differently in different situation ,此句与题干表达相同的内容。答案为A。

 

7) The writer is an export on money management.( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 题干句意:作者是一名理财方面的专家。通读全文,作者解释了不同人的理财观念,但没有提到自己是不是这方面的专家。答案为C。

 

8) According to the author, money is the most important in HWR.( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 题干句意:对于作者来说,金钱是HWR中最重要的。第三段中,作者说As to me, money is a part of the wealth aspect of HWR ,即作者认为金钱是HWR中代表财富(wealth) 方面的。因此题干说法不正确。答案为B。

 

9) With money we can buy anything including true friends.( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 题干句意:有钱我们可以买到一切,包括友谊。第三段中One thing I want to make clear is that I am not saying that money buys friends ,即作者明确指出金钱买不到友谊。题干说法显然错误。答案为B。

 

10) Money is only a part of the HWR system.( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 题干句意:金钱仅仅是HWR中的一个组成部分。原文最后一句Money is but a component in the system 给出了答案,本句和题干表达相同的意思。答案为A。

 

 

二、完形补文  

Pocket Money Basics

Pocket money is one of the first ways for children to learn the basics of __1__ (manage) money—a skill they'll definitely need for life—and it makes children feel __2__ (dependent). Equally, if your family finances or values mean you’d rather not give pocket money that is also an important lesson for your children.

Generally, children learn their __3__ (attitude) towards money from home. __4__ (give) pocket money creates the opportunity to teach children about spending __5__ (thoughtful) and saving (and even the consequences of misplacing it, losing it, betting or giving money away). Regardless of the amount of money, giving pocket money to children as young as four or five __6__ (help) them to begin learning about money __7__ (manage). Pocket money also helps teach children about having to make choices, __8__ (save) up and waiting for things they want.

Letting your children make a few mistakes is part of the learning process. You can put __9__ (limit) on what they spend their money on—for example, you might discourage them from __10___ (buy) bubblegum if you want to protect their teeth from decay.

1)______

【正确答案】 managing

【答案解析】 译文:管理零花钱是儿童学习如何理财的最基本内容之一。介词of后面接名词或动名词形式。答案为managing。

 

2) ______

【正确答案】 independent

【答案解析】 译文:这点能让孩子感觉到独立。dependent, adj.相关的、附属的。independent, adj.独立的。feel independent是系表结构。答案为independent。

 

3) ______

【正确答案】 attitudes

【答案解析】 物主代词their后应填入名词。而且their表示复数,所以所填名词也应用复数形式。答案为attitudes。

 

4) ______

【正确答案】 Giving

【答案解析】 本题考查的是现在分词。现在分词作主语,相当于If we give pocket money to…另外,下一句的giving pocket money to…也提示出答案。答案为Giving。

 

5) ______

【正确答案】 thoughtfully

【答案解析】 译文:给孩子零花钱为我们提供了机会来教他们如何深思熟虑地消费或储蓄。句中about spending and saving作句子的宾补,因此现在分词spending只能用副词来修饰。thoughtfully, adv.深思熟虑地。答案为thoughtfully。

 

6) ______

【正确答案】 helps

【答案解析】 本题考查时态。根据时态一致的原则,本文是一般现在时,应填入动词的一般现在时。另外giving pocket money to children as young as four or five是整个句子的主语,谓语动词应该用第三人称单数形式。答案为helps。

 

7) ______

【正确答案】 management

【答案解析】 译文:不管钱的数量是多少,在孩子四五岁的时候给他们零花钱,可以让他们开始学习如何管理钱。本题宾语不全,缺少名词。management, n.管理。答案为management。

 

8) ______

【正确答案】 saving

【答案解析】 介词about后连接三个并列的动名词形式作宾语。答案为saving。

 

9) ______

【正确答案】 limits

【答案解析】 put limits on 固定搭配,限制、为……限制。答案为limits。

 

10) ______

【正确答案】 buying

【答案解析】 介词from后接名词或动名词。答案为buying。

 

Unit 5

一、阅读判断  

Green Transportation

Green transportation choices provide you with the keys to the kingdom as you travel. You can walk off the calories of that buttery croissant as you explore Paris. Or better understand Chinese culture as you park your Flying Pigeon bicycle amid 100 others in a Beijing parking lot dedicated just to bikes. A marine ferry takes longer than an airplane to get you to Alaska, Mykonos or Nova Scotia, but you have a good chance of seeing dolphins and eagles, reading a book or two and chatting with the crew. You'll save money, your waistline and fossil fuel emissions by taking the greener road.

Step 1:

Get out of the car and walk once you arrive. The very greenest transportation choices are the non-motorized ones-bicycling and walking. Fortunately, both are also the best way to see a city. Pack comfortable shoes so you can explore without foot fatigue.

Step 2:

See if your lodging provides free bicycles for guests, recommends Irene Lane of Greenloons, a company that advises families on ecotourism travel choices. If not, rent a bicycle from a shop: many carry electric bikes that'll help you tackle hills or long rides even if you're not in top biking shape. In addition, see if your destination has a bike-sharing system that's accessible to tourists. For a small fee, these sharing systems allow you to pick up a bicycle from a nearby bike station, ride it to your heart's content for an hour or two, then return it to any other bike station in the city.

Step 3:

Take public transit once you arrive at your destination—most major transit systems now post maps and schedules online on multilingual sites, allowing you to familiarize yourself with the system in advance. In addition, some systems have applications for smart phones so you can get up-to-date information as you travel.

Step 4:

Move between cities using buses, trains and ferries, which tend to be greener than automobiles and airplanes—buses are considered more efficient than cars because their emissions are shared by several dozen people. If you have to fly or drive to get where you're going, take the most direct route and see if you can go green by proceeding on foot or bicycle once you arrive.

Step 5:

Rent an electric car if you must travel by vehicle and focus on green driving behaviors. Plan an efficient route, inflate your tires properly and remove unnecessary cargo to improve fuel efficiency and reduce the vehicle's carbon dioxide emissions.

1) With the green transportation choices, you can enter the ancient kingdom.( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 本题考查对原文第一句话的理解。译文:绿色出行能为你在某国度旅行时提供多种线索。而题干的意思是,选择了绿色出行,你能够进入到这个古老的国度。显然是错误的。答案为B。

 

2) A marine ferry enables you to see dolphins and eagles, read a book or two and chat with the crew. ( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 题干内容可以在原文第一段第四句找到,即乘坐海洋渡轮你可以欣赏海豚嬉戏、鹰击长空,可以阅读或者闲聊。题干符合文意。答案为A。

 

3) The greener the road you take, the more money you will save. ( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 句意:出行方式越环保,出行越经济。第一段最后一句作者表达了这个观点,即You'll save money, your waistline and fossil fuel emissions by taking the greener road。答案为A。

 

4) Bicycling, walking and taking ships are considered as the greenest transportation choices. ( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 第二段作者说最为环保的出行方式是乘坐非机动交通工具,包括骑车和步行。显然题干中的乘船是不正确的。答案为B。

 

5) Comfortable shoes are necessary for walking to avoid fatigue. ( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 第二段最后一句,选择一双舒适的鞋子可以避免出行时的疲劳。题干符合此意。答案为A。

 

6) While walking you’d better take a good map with you. ( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 句意:当你选择步行时最好携带一份完善的地图。作者只在第四段换乘交通工具时提到了地图,题干的说法没有涉及。答案为C。

 

7) The bike-sharing system offers services to tourists for free. ( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 本题考查对sharing system(自行车共享系统)的理解。第三段最后一句做了具体介绍。其中for a small fee告诉我们,使用这个系统不需要花多少钱,但不是免费。因此题干说法错误。答案为B。

 

8) Smart phones are a must during your travel. ( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 第四段最后一句作者提到,有些系统提供了小手机,所以当你旅行时可以获得及时消息。但文章没有提及这种小手机是不是旅行中的必需品。答案为C。

 

9) Buses are considered more efficient than cars because their emissions are taken in by passengers. ( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 第五段第一句,作者说了公交车比小轿车更高效的原因:几十人分担了(share)公交车的排量,这里指公交车可以运送更多的人。而题干用了词组take in,吸收了(排量),显然对文章理解有误。答案为B。

 

10) People can’t drive cars in any situation if they want to protect the environment. ( )

A. True

B. False

C. Not Given

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 最后一段第一句,如果你不得不开车而且又关注绿色驾车的话,你可以租用电动汽车。因此题干说法是错误的。答案为B。

 

二、阅读选择  

The Sandwich

American lunch hour is usually from noon until one o'clock or from one until two. People at work or school rarely go home for lunch. Instead, many bring lunch with them from home. For this purpose they need a meal that is small, portable, and does not require constant refrigeration. The sandwich meets all these three requirements.

When it comes to talking about the sandwich, Americans can offer you a long list of its names: a submarine sandwich, a hero, a hoagie, a grinder, a pool boy, a torpedo, a club sandwich and an open sandwich. Whatever you call it, this concoction (混合) of cold cuts in a roll is as American as the hot dog or the apple pie. In attempting to track down its origin, it is found that several U.S. cities claim to be its birthplace—New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, and Chester. A strong possibility is the simultaneous, independent invention of all these cities. Whatever it started, the sandwich was clearly an innovation of the Italian immigrants, In their old country, Italian workers had gone home at midday for their lunch; since U.S. factory owners frowned on this practice, they adopted the roll as a kind of lunchbox and put their meat and cheese within. In this way, an inexpensive yet filling meal could be carried to the workplace without damage. Hence we can see the sandwich as a compromise between the Old World attachment to sausages and cheese, and the need in the American workday context.

The sandwich remained largely a working-class item from its beginning in the 1580s. Then during the Depression the financially suffered middle class realized its value as an economical meal and transformed it into an American staple (生活必需品).

1) The passage offers a long list of the sandwich's names to give readers an impression that ________.( )

A. different people prefer different sandwiches

B. the sandwich is very popular among Americans

C. the sandwich has some funny and interesting names

D. Americans frequently talk about the sandwich

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 本文第二段开头,作者列出了一长串各种三明治的名字,可以看出三明治的口味、制作方法花样百出。因此也可知,美国人对其的喜爱。答案为B。

 

2) The birthplace of the sandwich is probably ________.( )

A. New Orleans

B. New York

C. Philadelphia

D. all of the above

【正确答案】 D

【答案解析】 本题考查细节。第二段第三句作者告诉我们三明治的发源地:New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia和Chester。答案为D。

 

3) The most possible inventor of the sandwich is ________.( )

A. factory workers

B. gold miners

C. school teachers

D. restaurant cooks

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 在第二段第五句中,作者明确告诉我们三明治的发明者是Italian immigrants(意大利移民);而第六句中进一步说是Italian workers(在工厂工作的意大利人)。综合上述内容,只有选项A符合文意。答案为A。

 

4) It can be concluded from the passage that ________.( )

A. the sandwich is a gift from the New World to the Old World

B. the sandwich is a gift from the Old World to the New World

C. the sandwich is a compromise between the Old World and the New World

D. the sandwich is mainly popular among Italian immigrants in America

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 第二段最后一句Hence we can see the sandwich as a compromise between Old World attachment to sausages and cheese给出了答案。compromise,n.折中物、产物。答案为C。

 

5) The most important feature of the sandwich as lunch is ________.( )

A. nutritious

B. economical

C. portable

D. free from disease germs

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 可以用排除法,首先排除文章没有涉及的选项A(有营养)和D(卫生)。第一段作者介绍三明治的特点时,用到了portable(可携带);在第二段讲述三明治发明过程时,用了could be carried to the workplace without damage。由此看出,三明治的最大特点是便于携带。答案为C。

 

三、概况段落大意和补全句子  

① Itzhak Perlman is considered one of the most gifted violinists in the world, a person with extraordinary talent who has persevered in spite of life-altering limitations. Born in Tel Aviv, Palestine in 1945, Perlman was stricken with the life-threatening polio virus at the age of four. Though he eventually learned to walk with crutches, the virus sadly and permanently damaged his legs, and to this day, he performs seated as a soloist, which is unusual. Nevertheless, Perlman was already beginning to play the violin, which in past interviews he has stated he was strongly encouraged to play in order to improve mobility in his fingers after his bout with polio.

② This encouragement clearly worked on what was probably a natural talent in any case. After first studying at the Academy of Music in Tel Aviv, he came to the United States, and by age 13, he'd had his first nationally televised performance on the Ed Sullivan Show. He continued studying at the New York—based Julliard School of Music, and in 1964, Itzhak Perlman won the highly competitive Levintritt Competition. This award made him internationally noticed and he began what has been a nonstop career of performance in orchestras throughout the world.

③ The career of Itzhak Perlman can be said to have had both highlights and higher lights. He seems continually to build on past successes, and continues to win new fans, multiple awards, and critical acclaim. Some of his most notable career moves include joining the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra in 1987. The orchestra toured, for the first time, several Eastern bloc countries, culminating with a performance in the Soviet Union in 1990. Perlman later went back to the Soviet Union in the same year to participate in a concert, which honored the birth of Tchaikovsky, and performed with other famous musicians, such as Yo-Yo Ma and Jessye Norman.

④ Recordings of the work of Itzhak Perlman abound and have gained him several Emmys and numerous Grammys. Perlman has also been honored with several prestigious awards from the United States. In 1986, Ronald Reagan gifted Perlman with the Medal of Freedom, and in 2000 Perlman earned the National Medal of Arts. Perlman has also been known for his collaborative efforts with some of today’s most noted film composers, such as John Williams. More recently, Itzhak Perlman and Yo-Yo Ma had featured solo performances on the soundtrack of Memoirs of a Geisha.

⑤ As one of the world's best violinists, it's fitting that Itzhak Perlman performs on two of the world's best violins. However it would be wrong to label this musician as only a violinist. He's also a charming speaker who has delighted guests with his fine sense of humor in guest appearances on television and in his hosting of the popular PBS program The Three Tenors. He's dedicated in his support of public people into making donation. In recent years, Perlman has begun to focus on conducting, and was appointed the Westchester Philharmonic principle conductor in 2007. He also continues his goal of delighting and educating people with music.

1. Paragraph ①______________

2. Paragraph ②______________

3. Paragraph ③______________

4. Paragraph ④______________

5. Paragraph ⑤______________

A. Itzhak Perlman is not only a violinist.

B. Itzhak Perlman is one of the most gifted violinists with extraordinary talent.

C. Itzhak Perlman donated a lot of money to some poor people.

D. Itzhak Perlman made success one after another.

E. Recordings of the work of Itzhak Perlman have gained him many awards.

F. He was encouraged to further develop his talent.

6.Itzhak Perlman was stricken with ________.

7.It's said that the career of Itzhak Perlman ________.

8.In addition to famous recordings, Perlman has also been known For ________.

9.Itzhak Perlman performs on ________.

10.We shouldn't only consider Itzhak Perlman as ________.

A. has had both highlights and higher lights

B. two of the world's best violins

C. his collaborative efforts with some of today's most noted film composers

D. a violinist

E. the polio virus

F. the most famous composer

1) ______

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 文章第一段第一个句子即为本段的核心句“Itzhak Perlman is considered one… in spite of life-altering limitations.”。即对伊扎克·帕尔曼的概括。答案为B。

 

2) ______

【正确答案】 F

【答案解析】 文章第二段第一个句子给出提示“This encouragement clearly worked on what was probably a natural talent in any case.”。下文围绕这个核心句阐述在激励下,他是如何努力深造的。答案为F。

 

3) ______

【正确答案】 D

【答案解析】 文章第三段第一个句子即为本段的核心句“The career of Itzhak Perlman can be said to have had both highlights and higher lights.”。下文围绕这个核心句介绍他具体取得了哪些成就。答案为D。

 

4) ______

【正确答案】 E

【答案解析】 文章第四段第一个句子即为本段的核心句“Recordings of the work of Itzhak Perlman abound and have gained him several Emmys and numerous Grammys.”。下文围绕这个核心句介绍他获得的奖项。答案为E。

 

5) ______

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 文章第五段第二、三句概括了本段主旨“However it would be wrong to label this musician as only a violinist. He's also a charming speaker…”。下文具体讲作为一位富有魅力的演讲家,他是如何做的。答案为A。

 

6) ______

【正确答案】 E

【答案解析】 文章第一段第四行给出相关信息“Perlman was stricken with the life-threatening polio virus at the age of four”。答案为E。

 

7) ______

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 文章第三段第一句话给出相关信息“The career of Itzhak Perlman can be said to have had both highlights and higher lights.”。答案为A。

 

8) ______

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 文章第四段倒数第四行给出相关信息“Perlman has also been known for his collaborative efforts with some of today's most noted film composers”。答案为C。

 

9) ______

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 文章第五段第一句给出相关信息“As one of the world's best violinists,it's fitting that Itzhak Perlman performs on two of the world's best violins.”。答案为B。

 

10) ______

【正确答案】 D

【答案解析】 文章第五段第二句给出相关信息“However it would be wrong to label this musician as only a violinist.”。答案为D。

 

Unit 6

一、填句补文  

Teaching Children to Spend Pocket Money Wisely

School-going children need pocket money for food, stationery and bus fares. Parents give pocket money to their children in different ways. Some give a lump sum at the beginning of a month or a week. ____1____ The way in which pocket money is given affects how money is spent or saved. On the other hand, the children's spending habits may affect how pocket money is given.

Pocket money given on a daily basis is sometimes termed as "food money". ____2____ They learn how to manage small sums of money. As the money is limited, they have to control their spending. Some parents choose this method of allocating pocket money in order to prevent their children from overspending, hoping that in time they can be trusted with larger sums of money. ____3____

Giving pocket money on a daily basis places responsibilities of budgeting on the parents, instead of the child. The child may spend every single cent of the daily pocket money by overindulging in junk food, as they know they will get another sum of money the next day. This results in children being short-sighted in their spending. ____4____ They may develop the mentality that money is meant to be spent. Others spend more than they are given. They borrow from their siblings or their classmates when they feel like indulging themselves. Then they may ask for money to pay off their debts. This habit of borrowing causes them to depend on others to solve their problems. ____5____

A. There is no better way to teach children to manage money than to start with their pocket money.

B. The thought of saving money never crossed their minds.

C. Children usually use the pocket money to buy food during recess and also at lunch hour if they have school activities in the afternoon.

D. Others prefer to give pocket money on a daily basis.

E. Parents who earn daily wages may also opt for this due to financial constraints.

F. In such instances, the purpose of rationing is defeated.

1)_______

【正确答案】 D

【答案解析】 前两句讲每个家长发放零用钱的方法不同。有的(some)是在月初或每周一发给孩子。很显然,下面作者会提到其他人的发放方法。选项D中的others和上句的some相对应。答案为D。

 

2) _______

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 本空应填入对上一句“food money”的解释。选项C符合此意。答案为C。

 

3) _______

【正确答案】 E

【答案解析】 本段作者主要介绍零用钱按天发放的方式,并解释了家长们选用这种方式的原因。选项E,是有的家长选择这种方式的原因之一。答案为E。

 

4) _______

【正确答案】 B

【答案解析】 本段作者提醒我们定量给零花钱存在的一些问题,有时反而让孩子形成乱花钱的习惯。本空下一句是表结果的:这样一来,孩子们在花钱方面变得目光短浅,认为钱就是用来消费的。因此,本空应填入造成这一结果的句子。答案为B。

 

5) _______

【正确答案】 F

【答案解析】 本句是对前几句的总结。前边几句是讲孩子们对钱的错误认识,会导致养成乱花钱的习惯。本空应填入表示上述结果的内容,即定量给零花钱的目的就彻底落空了。答案为F。

 

 

二、填词补文  

Learn from Mistakes

You can only learn from a mistake after you ____1____ you’ve made it. As soon as you start blaming other people (or the universe itself) you distance yourself ____2____ any possible lesson. But if you courageously stand up and honestly say “This is my mistake and I am responsible” the possibilities for learning will move towards you. Admission of a mistake, even if only privately to yourself, makes learning ____3____ by moving the focus away from blame assignment and towards understanding.

This advice ____4____ counter to the cultural assumptions we have about mistakes and failure, namely that they are ____5____ things. We’re taught in school, in our families, or at work to feel guilty about failure and to do whatever we can to ____6____ mistakes. This sense of shame explains why many people give up on their goals: they’re not ____7____ for the mistakes and failures What’s missing in many people’s beliefs about success is the fact that the more ____8____ the goal, the more frequent and difficult setbacks will be. The larger your ambitions, the more dependent you will be on your ability to overcome and learn from your mistakes.

But for many reasons admitting mistakes is difficult. An implied value in many cultures is that our work represents us: if you fail a test, then you are a ____9____ . If you make a mistake then you are a mistake. Learning from mistakes requires three things: putting yourself in situations where you can make interesting mistakes; having the self-confidence to admit to them; being ____10____ about making changes.

A. runs E. courageous I. avoid

B. access F. possible G. admit

C. challenging G. prepared K. activities

D. shameful H. failure L. from

1) _______

【正确答案】 J

【答案解析】 句意:只有当你承认了自己的错误,才能从错误中学到教训。本句after引导的从句中没有谓语动词,应填入表示承认(错误)的动词。答案为J。

 

2) _______

【正确答案】 L

【答案解析】 distance在这里用作动词,指疏远。distance … from sth.固定搭配,指与……保持距离、把……从某处疏远。句意:你一开始责备别人,你就把自己与可能得到的教训疏远开来。答案为L。

 

3) _______

【正确答案】 F

【答案解析】 make sth. possible固定搭配,使某事成为可能。句意:当你把关注点从责备别人改为理解别人时,从错误中学习才能变为可能。答案为F。

 

4) _______

【正确答案】 A

【答案解析】 run counter to固定搭配,违反、背道而驰。主语this advice为第三人称单数,因此动词run应该用一般现在时单数形式。答案为A。

 

5) _______

【正确答案】 D

【答案解析】 表语things前需要一个修饰它的形容词。shameful意为羞耻的、可耻的。句意:这个观点与错误、失败的文化定义背道而驰,(在此定义中)错误和失败被认为是那些羞耻的事。答案为D。

 

6) _______

【正确答案】 I

【答案解析】 本空是不定式to do缺少实意动词,应填入一个动词原形。do whatever we can指倾其所能。avoid意为避免,符合题意。句意:在学校、家庭或是工作中,失败让我们有负罪感,(因此)我们倾尽全力避免犯错。答案为I。

 

7) _______

【正确答案】 G

【答案解析】 句意:这种羞耻感可以解释为什么许多人放弃了他们的目标:他们没有为犯错和失败做准备。本句缺少表语,可以填入一个形容词。prepared, adj.事先准备好的。be prepared for固定搭配,准备好的、有准备的。答案为G。

 

8) _______

【正确答案】 C

【答案解析】 比较级句式the more … the more …提示我们本空应填入形容词。challenging, adj.具有挑战性的。句意是:很多人对成功的理解缺少了一点,就是目标越具挑战性,挫折就出现地越频繁、难度也越大。答案为C。

 

9)_______

【正确答案】 H

【答案解析】 本空与前边的定冠词a构成了句子的表语部分,因此应填入一个名词。failure为名词,意为失败。句意:在许多文化中隐含的价值观展现给我们这样的内容:考试失误一次,你就是失败了。答案为H。

 

10) _______

【正确答案】 E

【答案解析】 句意:有勇气改变自己。courageous是形容词,意为有勇气的,符合题意。答案为E。

 

 

三、完形补文  

Transportation

Transportation is an essential part of urban design. There are a number of ____1____ (benefit) forms of green transportation that support and enhance walkable urbanism. These green transportation options make our lives more ____2____ (easy), reduce congestion, reduce our ____3____ (depend) on cars and oil, are safer and less costly, help save the planet … and make life more fun!

The ____4____ (green) and most sustainable forms of transportation are trains, bicycles, and ____5____ (walk). Some of the world's best and fastest trains have been in ____6____ (operate) for more than 25 years in Europe, and more than 40 years in Japan. These include futuristic highspeed ____7____ (train) like the Eurostar, the French TGV, the Japanese bullet train; and also ____8____ (region) trains, monorails, light rail, trams, trolleys, streetcars, and so on. Clean ____9____ (electricity) trains are a major form of daily transportation in numerous countries, and are the single most powerful transportation choice that can solve serious energy environmental, economic, health, and social problems on a ____10____ (globe) scale.

1)_______

【正确答案】 beneficial

【答案解析】 名词forms前缺少修饰成分,应填入形容词。a number of beneficial forms of green transportation指许多有益的绿色交通方式。答案为beneficial。

 

2)_______

【正确答案】 easier

【答案解析】 make sth. more固定搭配,指使……更……,这里指让我们的生活更方便。答案为easier。

 

3)_______

【正确答案】 dependence

【答案解析】 前边的reduce congestion(n.堵塞),提示了我们,这里也需要填入名词。reduce our dependence on cars and oil指减少我们对汽车和石油的依赖。答案为dependence。

 

4) _______

【正确答案】 greenest

【答案解析】 这里是两个形容词最高级the + 所填词和most sustainable修饰名词forms,因此应填入形容词的最高级。答案为greenest。

 

5)_______

【正确答案】 walking

【答案解析】 文中的trains,bicycles均是出行方式,因此应填入名词或动名词形式。walking指步行。答案为walking。

 

6) _______

【正确答案】 operation

【答案解析】 句意:世界上一些最好最快的火车在欧洲已经运行了25年以上,在日本运行了超过40年。in operation固定搭配,运行、实施。答案为operation。

 

7)_______

【正确答案】 trains

【答案解析】 作者列举了多个高速火车,因此应填入名词的复数形式。答案为trains。

 

8) _______

【正确答案】 regional

【答案解析】 作者举了不同类型的火车,如高速火车,区域间的火车。这里表示在区域之间运行的火车,因此应填入形容词。答案为regional。

 

9) _______

【正确答案】 electric

【答案解析】 本题解题思路同上一题,应填入形容词,electric trains指电气化的火车。答案为electric。

 

10) _______

【正确答案】 global

【答案解析】 句意:在许多国家,清洁的电气化的火车是主要的日常出行方式,同时也是解决全球范围内严重的能源、环境、经济、健康以及社会问题的最有力选择。a global scale指全球范围。答案为global。


 


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